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Homes for Sale in Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC

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Buying or selling a home is a big deal. When it comes to making one of the largest financial decisions in your life, it's crucial to have a trusted advisor by your side. Someone who does what is best for you and your family, listens to your needs and does everything possible to help you achieve your goals. While most home buyers and sellers crave the same guidance from their real estate professionals, their specific real estate needs will always be different.

If you have been looking for a real estate agent who understands the delicate balance between the two, look no further than Hillary Jones. With more than 15 years of real estate experience under her belt, Hillary brings a unique set of client-centric skills to the table. Unlike some big box firms out there, Hillary provides personalized, one-on-one real estate services to all her clients. This boutique approach lets Hillary spend more time with clients, whether it's giving a house tour or finding the hidden gem of their dreams.

Hillary takes pride in knowing Irongate, SC neighborhoods like the back of her hand, from new homes for sale in Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC to secluded riverfront properties off the beaten path. She will work closely with you to discover the exact type of home you're interested in buying while always considering your budget.

Why do so many home buyers trust Hillary? She knows that the most important real estate transaction is yours. As such, she works tirelessly to exceed expectations.

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Here are just a few more reasons why real estate clients trust Hillary Jones:

  • 15+ Years of Real Estate Experience
  • Always Working for Your Best Interests
  • Expert Negotiator
  • Loyal, Confident, and Capable
  • Always Accessible Via Email or Phone
  • Always Up to Date on Market Trends and What They Mean to You
  • Expert at Writing Strong, Enforceable Contracts
  • Well Connected
  • Access to Many Homes for Sale in Dozens of Neighborhoods
  • Stress-Free Service: You've Got Enough on Your Plate!
  • Available Every Step of the Way, Even After Closing
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 Buying Agent Irongate, SC

Peaceful Living

Community designers chose to focus on a peaceful community atmosphere when creating this neighborhood. Homes are not stacked on top of one another but are also close enough to create a sense of community. Here, residents live, work, play, and gather while never being too far away from major thoroughfares. The neighborhood's layout helps reduce on-road traffic, encouraging alternative methods of travel like walking and biking.

The community plan sidewalks and beautiful spaces for residents to enjoy, creating meaningful ties to Mother Nature. With gorgeous walking and biking trails nearby, residents have the chance to enjoy natural features without having to travel to a national park.

If living close to nature in a community-based environment sounds like the perfect place to live, Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC should be high on your list.

Schools

 First Time Home Buyer Irongate, SC

Schooling is important to the residents of Summerville, SC, with the community being close to many of the area's highest-ranking K-12 schools. If you have younger children, you will love the local education system and pre-K options for younger kids. Local high schools are also great, and feature many course options with purpose-driven curriculums and over-achieving teachers. During your tour of this Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC, be sure to ask Hillary Jones about the elementary, middle, and high school options for learning.

Crime Rate

 Real Estate Agent Irongate, SC

Crime is always a factor no matter where you live, but if you're concerned about criminal activity in this Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC, you don't have much to worry about. Recent statistics show that Summerville, SC has lower crime rates than other cities in South Carolina. That is great news if you're looking to buy a home in the next year, especially if you have younger children. If you're looking for a peaceful place to live with excellent nearby schools and lower than average crime rates, look no further than this popular neighborhood in Summerville, SC.

 Sell My Home Irongate, SC

Homes for Sale Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC

Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC is a well-established neighborhood nestled in Summerville, SC - one of the most popular cities to live and play in in South Carolina. After spending some time in this gorgeous community, you will get a true sense of comfort and belonging here. You get the feeling that everything is well looked after and that residents are happy - because both are true.

in Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC was designed to give residents access to everything they could want or need without driving all over Summerville, SC. Located a short driving distance from the highway, Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC features unique recreation opportunities, shopping, top-ranked schools, and even healthcare, all within driving distance of the neighborhood. Community developers created the layout of this neighborhood in Summerville, SC with convenience and comfort in mind. When you live here, you can enjoy an abundance of trees, shrubs, walking trails, well-lit streets, and more.

A few reasons why home buyers put Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC at the top of their lists include:

The Trail System

Designed for families and their children to get outside and play, in Summerville, SC trail system winds its way throughout the neighborhood, giving residents an easy way to get out and get exercise. Kids love to explore these trails, and parents love to let them get a break from sitting in front of their iPad all day. Adults enjoy the trails too, and use them for walking with friends, running, or simply meandering through Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC.

Sense of Community

The Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC designers wanted to give residents plenty of room to "stretch out" while also creating a palpable sense of community. So, you won't have to walk a mile in the snow to get a cup of sugar from your neighbor. On the other hand, residents and their lots are well-spaced apart, maintaining privacy. Residents in the Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC neighborhood are close-knit, and very welcoming to new homeowners. If you have children, you should set up a date and time to tour Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC with Hillary Jones, who can point out popular features and home plans.

Summerville, SC YMCA

One of the most sought-after amenities Summerville, SC is the family YMCA. This massive complex was created to give local residents a fun, easy way to enjoy recreation with friends and family. Features include modern exercise equipment, walking tracks, tennis and basketball courts, a softball field, an aquatics complex, and even wellness and health programs. Sign your child up for Summerville, SC camp, or even try learning a new sport to keep you active on the weekends!

Healthcare

Healthcare

Access to healthcare options in Summerville, SC is plentiful and located within a few miles' drive. Healthcare providers include:

  • Primary Care Options
  • Orthodontic Practices
  • Family Dentistry Offices
  • Chiropractic and Massage Therapists
  • Assisted Living Facilities
  • Eye Care Centers

Shopping

Shopping

One of the biggest reasons why so many home buyers settle on Summerville, SC is the extensive access to shops and services, all located just a short drive from the neighborhood.

Shopping and convenience options include:

  • Popular grocery store chains
  • Restaurants offering breakfast, lunch, and dinner options from names like Starbucks and Chick-Fil-A, and more.
  • Gas stations and convenience stores for re-fueling and quick snacks.
  • Personal services like nail salons and spas for relaxation.
  • Financial services for taxes and investing.
  • Preschool and childcare options for families.

Real Estate
in Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC

Awarded "Best Community" by Summerville, SC Choice Awards, Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC is located where 53,000 acres of land have been placed under density restriction. If you're looking for a neighborhood with a secluded feel that is close to nature but also nearby the conveniences of modern life, you're in luck. Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC offers restaurants, shops, and entertainment options nearby, and should be on your list of communities to tour with Hillary Jones. Unlike many newer neighborhoods, Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC does not have a "cookie cutter" feel at all. Instead of congested sidewalks and small lots, Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC boasts plenty of room to live and a variety of floor plan options.

Homebuyers choose Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC for many reasons, including:

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1.

Family-Friendly

One of the most cited reasons for moving to Irongate neighborhood in Summerville, SC is the fact that it is family friendly. Here, kids love to gather outdoors and play, socialize, and make new friends that last for a lifetime. This neighborhood's family-friendly atmosphere makes carpooling easy, especially if your kids are in children's programs with neighbors. Expect warm smiles and hearty hugs when you move here, as the current residents are very friendly and welcoming. If you don't currently have kids but want to start a family in the future, this neighborhood in Summerville, SC is a fantastic place to raise a child.

 Listing Agent Irongate, SC

2.

Outdoor Activities

If you love to soak up the sun and spend your free time in the great outdoors instead of cooped up inside, this neighborhood in Summerville, SC is a great choice. Whether you want an easy-to-find walking trail for a leisurely stroll a wooded hiking trail, you can find plenty of options close by. If you would rather hit the gym over walking or running, you can choose from several gyms in the local area. If you don't feel like driving a short way's away, you can always take a nice walk around this gorgeous neighborhood in Summerville, SC. When you live here, you will have easy access to many outdoor activities, all within a short driving distance.

Some local outdoor activity options include:

  • Hiking
  • Biking
  • Walking
  • Fishing
  • Swimming
  • Camping
  • More
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3.

Schools

Perhaps the most cited reason for buying a home in Summerville, SC is the unique access to schools. Whether your child is just getting started in the school system or is a junior in high school, the education programs in Summerville, SC are excellent. Ranked among some of the best schools in the state, there are options for pre-K students all the way up to high schoolers. Students that attend school in Summerville, SC love the teachers, their fellow students, the classes offered, and the after-school activities to advance their sports skills and education.

Many parents choose to enroll their kids in the Dorchester 2 school district, which has received acclaim as one of the best school districts available.

 Buyers Home Seller Irongate, SC

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with Hillary Jones

If you are thinking about buying real estate in Summerville, SC, we would like to invite you to our office and welcome you to our community. As a local for nearly two decades, Hillary Jones knows the Lowcountry like the back of her hand. From local market knowledge to contract negotiations, Hillary is committed to unmatched real estate excellence. It doesn't matter if you have a few questions or are ready to buy your dream home - if quality real estate service is what you need, you will find it here.

Everyone knows the home buying process can be challenging, but as your advocate, your experience will be seamless and stress-free. Give our office in Summerville, SC, a call today to learn more about how Hillary puts the "real" back in real estate.

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Latest News in Irongate, SC

Emerging contaminants in sediment core from the Iron Gate I Reservoir on the Danube River

HighlightsAbstractThe Iron Gate I Reservoir is the largest impoundment on the Danube River. It retains >50% of the incoming total suspended solids load and the associated organic contaminants. In the sediment core of the Iron Gate I Reservoir we report the presence an...

Highlights

Abstract

The Iron Gate I Reservoir is the largest impoundment on the Danube River. It retains >50% of the incoming total suspended solids load and the associated organic contaminants. In the sediment core of the Iron Gate I Reservoir we report the presence and fate of four classes of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, steroids and perfluorinated compounds), predominantly not covered by the EU monitoring programs, but considered as future candidates. Based on contaminant's partitioning behavior in the water/sediment system and the suspected ecotoxicological potential asserted from the literature data, the risk of recorded concentrations for sediment-dwelling organisms was discussed. The high anticipated risk was associated with antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin, and pesticides linuron and carbendazim (banned in the EU, but still approved for use in the investigated area) and malathion. This indicated the need for better control of release of these compounds into the river, and implied their inclusion in future regular monitoring. Higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals and most pesticides and sterols were recorded in the fragment of allochthonous coarser sediment, assumed to have entered the reservoir during a high discharge event. Only one perfluorinated compound was recorded in the upper part of the sediment core. The vertical concentration profiles of pesticides propazine and malathion indicated their uniform source, most likely atmospheric transport and deposition of particles deriving from agricultural land.

Graphical abstract

Introduction

Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), untreated sewage water, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents pose sever threat to the quality of the river water ecosystems (Luo et al., 2014; Tran et al., 2018). Increasing number of associated chemicals entering the rivers has become a challenge for regulatory agencies when they need to decide on monitoring strategies. Unregulated substances deriving from human and veterinary medicine, agricultural practices or various industrial applications have attracted attention due to their potential health effects in wildlife and humans and are considered to be emerging contaminants (Geissen et al., 2015). The mixtures of these contaminants (and their metabolites) occurring in the environment may have an even greater impact than can be expected from the cumulative effects of individual substances (Boxall, 2012).

In the wake of increasing awareness of river ecosystem services (such as provision of drinking water and riparian wildlife habitat, flood mitigation and natural water filtration, maintenance of fisheries and biodiversity, etc.) (Grizzetti et al., 2016) it is essential to understand the occurrence, distribution and fate of a variety of emerging contaminants in rivers. Especially important are those which are not monitored, but considered as future candidates by the European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Such an understanding will certainly support regulatory authorities in future prioritization strategies.

As habitats for various aquatic organisms, sediments play an intrinsic role in aquatic ecosystems. They are regarded as a major sink of organic contaminants, but in the case of re-suspension sediments can also act as a source of contaminated particles (Roberts, 2012). In the impoundments of hydropower plants, suspended sediments settle on the river bottom occasionally at high accumulation rates (Teodoru et al., 2006). Sediment dredging is a common practice to remove sediments from the impounded reservoir, but this practice bares a risk of spreading the sediment-related contaminants (Roberts, 2012). Furthermore, in border regions, where wastewater treatment capabilities, medical or agricultural practices or regulations for the use and production of chemicals can vary significantly, the sediment quality may become a transboundary issue. Improved monitoring of sediments and adequate sediment quality management is therefore necessary.

The Iron Gate I Reservoir is the largest impoundment on the Danube River. This reservoir has been the subject of a number of studies (McGinnis et al., 2006; Teodoru et al., 2006; Micić et al., 2013, Micić et al., 2015) due to a significant impact of the Iron Gate I hydroelectric power station, as well as the input of large amount of untreated wastewater along the Danube River upstream of the dam, especially from the Belgrade metropolitan area. It has been estimated that about 90% of the municipal wastewater in Serbia is not treated prior to the discharge (Salvetti, 2015). Moreover, the Iron Gate I Reservoir retains >50% of the incoming total suspended solids load (Teodoru and Wehrli, 2005) and the same is expected for the sediment-associated organic contaminants. Fast sedimentation rate within the Iron Gate I Reservoir of around 23.3 cm y−1 (Micić et al., 2013) implies a high potential of accumulation and possibly preservation of organic contaminants.

The aim of this study was to (1) elucidate depth-related occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in river sediments of the Iron Gate I Reservoir and (2) suggest chemicals that should be potentially included in further monitoring programs given their sediment loads and the associated environmental risks asserted from the literature ecotoxicity data. Selected compounds included pharmaceuticals, pesticides, steroids and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) for which deficient information still prevents conclusion on the real risk posed to the aquatic environment. For this purpose, a set of sediment core samples from a great depth of the Iron Gate I Reservoir on the Danube River, situated at the EU-border region between Serbia and Romania, was investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Section snippets

Relevance of the selected emerging contaminants

The selection of emerging organic contaminants in this study was based on their suspected ecotoxicological potential and it is complemented with (i) those which are not routinely monitored but are known to be approved for use in the investigated area, and (ii) some contaminants which had been previously detected in the Danube River sediments. The selection included compounds with a wide range of physico-chemical properties; from those with very high log Kow and log Koc values (>9 and >5,

Chemicals and reagents

Analytical standards of selected pharmaceuticals were supplied from Hemofarm (STADA Group, Vršac, Serbia), whereas pesticides standards were obtained from Riedel-de Haën (Seelze, Germany). Steroid analytical standards were purchased from Steraloids Inc. (Newport, US) and analytical standards of PFCs were obtained from Wellington Laboratories (Guelph, Canada). All standards of the investigated compounds were of high purity grade (>95%).

The stock standard solutions were prepared in methanol at

Results and discussion

All four classes of investigated organic contaminants were detected in the Danube sediment core in various concentration ranges summarized in Table 2.

Conclusions

The depth-related distribution of detected pharmaceuticals, sterols and certain pesticides revealed a spike in deeper coarser layers of the core, most likely originating from allochthonous sediment transported during the high-discharge events along the Danube River prior to sediment sampling. For pesticides whose vertical concentration profiles did not show a clear trend, the most probable entry route to sediments is atmospheric transport and deposition. Given their sediment levels and the

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project No. 172007). The authors wish to thank Dr. Vladimir Beškoski for his assistance in obtaining the analytical standards of perfluorinated compounds. V. Micić and T. Hofmann acknowledge the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) for enabling participation in the Joint Danube Survey 2 (JDS 2).

References (72)

Iron-bound carbon increases along a freshwater−oligohaline gradient in a subtropical tidal wetland

HighlightsAbstractGlobally, a vast extent of tidal wetlands will be threatened by sea-level-rise-induced salinization. Because ferric (hydro)oxides [Fe(III)] play a crucial role in soil organic carbon (SOC) preservation, understanding the responses of the Fe-bound...

Highlights

Abstract

Globally, a vast extent of tidal wetlands will be threatened by sea-level-rise-induced salinization. Because ferric (hydro)oxides [Fe(III)] play a crucial role in soil organic carbon (SOC) preservation, understanding the responses of the Fe-bound C pool to increasing salinity could assist in accurate prediction of the changes in C stocks in the tidal wetland soils facing imminent sea-level rise. In this study, we investigated pools of Fe-bound C and SOC, C-degrading enzyme activity, Fe species contents and Fe-cycling bacteria, and plant properties along a salinity gradient from freshwater (0.0 ± 0.1 ppt; part per thousand) to oligohaline (2.6 ± 0.6 ppt) in a subtropical tidal wetland. Overall, the belowground biomass and the content of root Fe(III) plaque (a proxy of root oxygen loss potential) rose with the increasing salinity. Along the salinity gradient, the abundance of Gallionella (Fe-oxidizing bacteria) increased, but the abundance of Geobacter (Fe-reducing bacteria) decreased. The Fe(II):Fe(III) ratios decreased as salinity increased, implying that more Fe(II) was oxidized and immobilized into Fe(III) closer to the sea. Fe sulfides contents also elevated close to sea. The co-existence of Fe(III) and Fe sulfides at the oligohaline sites implied a high spatial heterogeneity of Fe distribution. During the growing season, the SOC pool generally decreased with increasing salinity, probably due to a reduction in aboveground-C input and enhanced activity of the C-degrading enzyme. The Fe-bound C pool was positively affected by the amorphous Fe(III) content and negatively related to the activity of phenol oxidase. The Fe-bound C pool generally rose along the salinity gradient, with the importance of Fe-bound C to SOC increasing from 18% to 29%. Altogether, our findings implied that when the imminent sea-level-rise-induced salinization occurs, the total soil C stock may generally decrease, but Fe-bound C will become increasingly important in protecting the rest of the C stocks in tidal wetland soils.

Graphical abstract

Introduction

Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role to C biogeochemical cycles on the earth (Schlesinger and Andrews, 2000). Reactive ferric (hydro)oxides [Fe(III)], including both amorphous (e.g., ferrihydrite) and crystalline (e.g., akaganéite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, and schwertmannite) forms, may chelate or co-precipitate with organic C and yield Fe-bound C complexes (Lalonde et al., 2012). Such Fe-bound C is relatively stable and refractory and thus could preserve soil C stocks long-term (Lavallee et al., 2020). Fe-bound C has been firstly identified in laboratories (Boudot et al., 1989; Jeewani et al., 2020), and has gradually received attention in diverse ecosystems, including forests (Zhao et al., 2016; Chen et al., 2020; Huang et al., 2020), alpine grasslands (Wang et al., 2017; Fang et al., 2019; Zhu et al., 2019), permafrost (Wang et al., 2020), peatlands (Wen et al., 2019; Zhao et al., 2019), and coastal and lake sediments (Peter and Sobek, 2018; Zhao et al., 2018). Globally, it is estimated that the C pool specifically associated with Fe(III) attains approximately 19–45 × 1015 g C (Lalonde et al., 2012).

Tidal wetlands are located at the landward end of estuaries, where they could be influenced by both river discharge and tidewaters (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2015). Although tidal wetlands occupy only about 0.3%–5.0% of the total wetlands all over the world, they store around 50-times more C than any other terrestrial ecosystem (Reddy and Delaune, 2008). Tidal wetlands also act as “hotspots” for Fe redox cycling (Kostka and Luther III, 1994). Vascular plants in the tidal wetlands will transfer the oxygen (O2) through aerenchyma to the roots for maintaining root respiration in the anaerobic soils. This so-called “root oxygen loss” can facilitate ferrous Fe (Fe(II)) oxidizing into reddish Fe(III) plaque that coats on the roots of tidal wetland plants (Armstrong et al., 2000; Emerson et al., 2010; Khan et al., 2016). The precipitation of root Fe(III) plaque is usually accompanied by the form of Fe-bound C in the wetland soils (Wang et al., 2017; Duan et al., 2020; Jeewani et al., 2020). Fe(III) also serves as an important terminal electron acceptor for microbial iron reduction (Froelich et al., 1979), which accounts for 21%–90% of anaerobic C mineralization in the tidal wetland soils (Kristensen and Alongi, 2006; Hyun et al., 2007). Overall, the belowground Fe redox cycling are strongly interlinked with C input and C output in the tidal wetland soils (Herbert et al., 2015). While Fe-enriched soils are prevailing in the tidal wetlands all over the world (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2015), the importance of the Fe-bound C pool to the soil C stocks in tidal wetland ecosystem has not been clarified yet.

Salinity is one of the most important environment drivers of tidal wetland ecosystems, which could deeply influence microbial community structure, plant species composition, and soil biogeochemical process (see review in Herbert et al., 2015). Of particular concern is the fact that salinization could exert impacts on plant biomass (Naskar and Palit, 2015; Howard et al., 2016; Zhou et al., 2016), which is the main source of autochthonous C in the tidal wetland soils (Cragg et al., 2020). Increases in salinity could also affect the C-degrading enzyme activity, since salt stress can cause cellular protein coagulation or denaturation (Berga et al., 2012; Morrissey et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2017; Zhao et al., 2019). Salinization could introduce sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor and lead to intense substrate competition between microbial respiration pathways, e.g., microbial sulfate reduction, microbial iron reduction, and methanogenesis (Tobias and Neubauer, 2009). Besides, altered salinity could affect Fe(II) oxidation potential through mediating the root biomass and root oxygen loss (Khan et al., 2016). Increased sulfidation (a product of sulfate reduction) could further reduce the soil Fe(III) by form Fe–S minerals (e.g., Fe sulfides) (Burton et al., 2011; Schoepfer et al., 2014). Though increasing salinity is capable of influencing both C and Fe biogeochemical cycles, the response of Fe-bound C pool to salinity effect in the tidal wetland ecosystems remain uncertain.

As the sea level continues to rise at a rate of 3.1–4.1 mm yr−1, saltwater may subsequently intrude farther into many historically freshwater tidal wetlands globally (IPCC, 2019). Fe-bound C is considered an efficient ‘Fe gate’ for SOC stabilization (Wang et al., 2017). Would sea-level rise open or latch this ‘Fe gate’? The adoption of a ‘salinization perspective’ on the Fe-bound C pool is of ecological importance in exploring the future C budget of historical low-salinity tidal wetlands facing imminent sea-level rise.

Herein, in the present study, we investigated the pools of Fe-bound C and SOC, C-degrading enzyme activity, Fe species contents and Fe-cycling bacteria, and plant properties along an estuary gradient (salinity range: 0.0–2.6 part per thousand; ppt) in a subtropical tidal wetland. The estuary salinity gradient here is considered as a space-for-time substitute to study prolonged modest salinization on the tidal wetland ecosystem (Poffenbarger et al., 2011; Sutton-Grier et al., 2011; Morrissey et al., 2014; Dang et al., 2018). In order to isolate the effect of salinity, sampling sites were selected with similar plant communities, tidal influence, and underlying soil conditions. The modest salinity gradient was selected since a salinity transition from freshwater (0–0.5 ppt) to oligohaline (0.5–5.0 ppt) is what most tidal freshwater wetlands will probably undergo in the imminent future at the current rate of sea-level-rise (Woodroffe and Murray-Wallace, 2012). We aimed to explore: (1) the importance of Fe-bound C to soil C stocks in the tidal wetland ecosystem, and its level compared to other aquatic sediments and wetland ecosystems; (2) changing pattern of Fe-bound C pool along the salinity gradient. For the second goal, we hypothesized that: (I) C-degrading enzyme activity may decrease along the salinity gradient owing to salt stress; (II) Fe(III) content may be reduced by sulfidization towards sea; and (III) the importance of Fe-bound C pool may gradually diminish with the increasing salinity accounting for Fe(III) deficiency. A conceptual structural equation model was conducted according to these hypotheses (Fig. S1).

Section snippets

Study site

The study site is located in the tidal wetlands of the Min River estuary, southeastern China (Fig. 1). The Min River flows into the East China Sea, and its lower reaches pass through Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, which has a population of 7.80 million. The study site has a subtropical monsoon climate. Monsoon rains typically occur from March to August, accounting for >70% of the total annual rainfall and leading to higher freshwater discharge during spring and summer than in autumn and winter

Soil, plant, and microbial properties

Salinity increased from 0.0 ± 0.1 ppt at the low-salinity site to 2.6 ± 0.6 ppt at the high-salinity site (Table 1). The salinity along the estuarine gradient changed less in spring and summer than in autumn and winter, which could be attributed to a greater freshwater river discharge owing to marine monsoon and heavy rainfall during spring and summer. Along the salinity gradient, soil pH significantly increased from 6.8 ± 0.1 to 7.4 ± 0.1 (Table 1), while soil ORP was statistically constant

Discussion

Changes in the Fe-bound C pool have been investigated along a freshwater−oligohaline gradient in a tidal wetland. The results showed that Fe-bound C accounted for around 24% of the SOC pool, which was relatively higher than have been reported in aquatic sediments and wetland ecosystems. Along the salinity gradient, the activities of cellobiohydrolase and phenol oxidase increased due to enhanced root oxygen loss potential (contradicting Hypothesis I). The amorphous Fe(III) and Fe sulfides

Conclusion and implication

The most important finding in the present study was that the Fe-bound C pool generally increased along a freshwater−oligohaline gradient in a subtropical tidal wetland. The change in the Fe-bound C pool was determined by the positive feedback of belowground biomass and root oxygen loss and their associated soil-microbe interactions towards salinization. When the anticipated future sea-level rise occurs, most of the tidal freshwater wetlands will transit to tidal oligohaline wetlands. According

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgments

We sincerely thank the contributing Editor Petra Marschner and two anonymous reviewers. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.32071598; No.41877335); the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (No.2019J02008; No.2020J01503). This work was also financially supported by grants from the Science and Technology Projects of Forest Bureau of Fujian Province, China.

References (79)

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College’s Latin Gate at Cougar Mall Turns ‘L’

haec olim meminisse iuvabitYou may have noticed that Latin phrase on the archway over the metal gate as you exit Cougar Mall to the sidewalk along Calhoun Street. Since it was installed in May of 1968, millions of students and visitors have walked beneath the gate’s ornate spires onto the College of Charleston campus. But it’s safe to say that in the 50 years since the Class of 1968 donated the gate, only a small fraction of those passersby could translate the phrase forged within the iron.That’s wher...

haec olim meminisse iuvabit

You may have noticed that Latin phrase on the archway over the metal gate as you exit Cougar Mall to the sidewalk along Calhoun Street. Since it was installed in May of 1968, millions of students and visitors have walked beneath the gate’s ornate spires onto the College of Charleston campus. But it’s safe to say that in the 50 years since the Class of 1968 donated the gate, only a small fraction of those passersby could translate the phrase forged within the iron.

That’s where classics professor Tim Johnson helps out. His translation of the phrase haec olim meminisse iuvabit is this:

“someday, it will please you to remember even these present troubles”

“The quote is from Vergil’s Aeneid, book 1.203, when Aeneas addresses his companion-exiles, washed ashore on the beach at Carthage, after they suffered the fall of their home-city Troy, many monstrous experiences, and now shipwreck,” says Johnson. “The speech he gives is an invocation for his people to set aside their current misery in favor of feasting, heavy drinking, and some sleep. It is easy, given the rigors of academia, for students, faculty, staff, and administrators to empathize with Aeneas’ worn-out prayer.”

RELATED: Learn why the College’s Department of Classics ranks among the best nationally.

But Johnson says that may not be the end of the story.

“The most famous modern rendition of Aeneas’ hope-filled reassurance to his fellow-refugees is from the 1939 movie Goodbye Mr. Chips, recognized as one of the top 100 films in British cinema and remade as a musical only one year after the Latin Gate was dedicated,” he says. “In the film, Charles Chipping (Mr. Chips), now in his eighties, dreams about his past career as a classics teacher at Brookfield, a fictional minor public boarding school. His vision recalls among other memories the day of his retirement, when he declared to his students: haec olim meminisse iuvabit. With the exhausted Aeneas in the background, Mr. Chips with a chuckle forever turns the phrase into a celebration of the academy: both teachers’ arduous but often unrewarded care for their students and their students’ studious labors over books and papers in hopes of securing the good life.”

On this the 50th anniversary of the installation of the gate, Johnson invites us to remember Aeneas’ claims that mindfulness of the past, even its troubles, gives value to the present.

“In many ways, the Latin gate is the summation of the College of Charleston and her insistence on the necessity of the liberal arts,” says Johnson. “It is a strong gate, standing open, and it is a privilege to walk through it.”

May iron(III) complexes containing phenanthroline derivatives as ligands be prospective anticancer agents?

HighlightsAbstractWe report the design, synthesis and biological studies on a group of mixed ligand Fe(III) complexes as anti-cancer drug candidates, namely their interaction with DNA, cytotoxicity and mechanism(s) of action. The aim is to obtain stable, efficient and selective Fe-complexes to be used as anti-cancer agents with less damaging ...

Highlights

Abstract

We report the design, synthesis and biological studies on a group of mixed ligand Fe(III) complexes as anti-cancer drug candidates, namely their interaction with DNA, cytotoxicity and mechanism(s) of action. The aim is to obtain stable, efficient and selective Fe-complexes to be used as anti-cancer agents with less damaging side effects than previously reported compounds. Five ternary Fe(III) complexes bearing a tripodal aminophenolate ligand L2−, H2L = N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and different aromatic bases NN = 2,2′-bipyridine [Fe(L)(bipy)]PF6 (1), 1,10-phenanthroline [Fe(L)(phen)]PF6 (2), or a phenanthroline derivative co-ligand: [Fe(L)(amphen)]NO3 (3), [Fe(L)(amphen)]PF6 (3a), [Fe(L)(Clphen)]PF6 (4), [Fe(L)(epoxyphen)]PF6 (5) (where amphen = 1,10-phenanthroline-5-amine, epoxyphen = 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-1,10-phenanthroline, Clphen = 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline) and the [Fe(L)(EtOH)]NO3 (6) complex are synthesized. The compounds are characterized in the solid state and in solution by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, magnetic susceptibility measurements and FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and fluorescence spectroscopies. [Fe(phen)Cl3] and [Fe(amphen)Cl3] were also prepared for comparison purposes. Spectroscopic binding studies indicate groove binding as the main interaction for most complexes with DNA, and for those containing amphen a B- to Z-DNA conformational change is proposed to occur. As determined via MTT analysis all compounds 16 are cytotoxic against a panel of three different cell lines (HeLa, H1299, MDA-MB-231). For selected compounds with promising cytotoxic activity, apoptosis was evaluated using cell and DNA morphology, TUNEL, Annexin V/7AAD staining and caspase3/7 activity. The compounds induce oxidative DNA damage on plasmid DNA and in cell culture as assessed by 8-oxo-Guanine and γH2AX staining. Comet assay confirmed the presence of genomic damage. There is also increased reactive oxygen species formation following drug treatment, which may be the relevant mechanism of action, thus differing from that normally assumed for cisplatin. The Fe(III)-complexes were also tested against strains of M. Tuberculosis (MTb), complex 2 depicting higher anti-MTb activity than several known second line drugs. Hence, these initial studies show prospective anti-cancer and anti-MTb activity granting promise for further studies.

Graphical abstract

Introduction

The use of metal-based compounds for medicinal purposes dates back to early times of recorded history. The success of platinum based chemotherapeutic drugs (combined with their drawbacks) stimulated the search for new and improved metal-based anticancer drugs, capable of overcoming the intrinsic and/or acquired tumor resistance, distinct mechanisms of action and exhibiting lower toxicity [[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]. A possible approach to address the cytotoxic response of metallodrugs is the use of biologically essential transition metals that are required for the healthy sustenance of human health [6,7]. Although the toxicity associated to metallodrugs is dependent of various factors, such as dose, the use of endogenous metal ions might be advantageous since human physiology is equipped to deal with them and this may in turn lead to less damaging side effects [8,9].

Iron ions, being redox active, are involved in the regulation of many biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The antitumor activity of iron depends both on the increased expression of transferrin receptor 1 in cancer cells [10], which is necessary for the uptake of Fe from the serum, and on the elevated Fe-containing enzymes, such as the ribonucleotide reductase [11], which is involved in DNA synthesis [12]. Therefore, Fe appears as a candidate for use in metallodrug design in anticancer therapy [13,14].

Several Fe-complexes containing diverse types of ligand systems have displayed exciting anticancer properties, and importantly, mechanisms of action that differ from those of platinum drugs [14]. While the activity of some Fe-complexes with ferrocenium picrate or ferrocenium trichloroacetate salts are attributed to ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation and oxidative DNA damage [15], some containing heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones were shown to inhibit DNA synthesis [16,17]. On the other hand, mixed-ligand Fe-complexes bearing aminophenolate ligands and DNA binding phenanthrolines were reported to display photocytotoxicity under visible light towards different cancer cell lines, even better than the standard drug photofrin [18].

Fe(III)-complexes of phenolate ligands with tripodal amines have attracted interest as mimics of enzyme active sites, since the tetradentate ligands provide reasonable analogues of histidine and tyrosinate coordination [19]. Additionally, substituents at the phenolate rings, as well as the position and nature of the donor atoms, are tunable features of the compounds. Metal complexes containing phenanthroline derivatives have been reported to be active against various pathologic conditions including cancer, microbial, and fungal infections [[20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29]]; thus, the introduction of a NN aromatic heterocyclic co-ligand, such as NN = 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or a 1,10-phenanthroline derivative, in the Fe-coordination sphere, may reinforce the desired biological activity. A wide array of electronic features and redox potentials are thus available, which can direct synthetic strategies towards obtaining compounds with optimal performance. Tripodal aminophenolate Fe(III)-complexes have a well-developed chemistry [19,27,[30], [31], [32]], however their application as therapeutics for cancer is still an underdeveloped area of research.

In an effort to develop novel Fe-complexes with potent anticancer activity and to elucidate their mechanism of action, a group of Fe(III)-complexes composed of ligand L2− (H2L= N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) and differently substituted phenanthrolines as co-ligands were synthesized. Here, we comprehensively studied the biological activity of these compounds, and selected three of them for further analysis. The compounds were assessed for the mechanism of cell death, their molecular mode of action and DNA damaging properties in cell culture. Our results provide an important base for the understanding of the biological action of Fe-compounds and particularly of tripodal aminophenolate Fe-complexes.

Section snippets

Chemicals, apparatus and general procedures

All chemicals were purchased from Aldrich and Alfa Aesar and used as received. Solvents were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Carlo-Erba, Panreac or Fisher, p.a. grade and used with no further treatment. The tripodal aminophenolate H2L compound and all metal complexes were synthesized in aerobic conditions.

The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker Avance+ 400 MHz and 300 MHz Spectrometers. 1H chemical shifts (δ) are expressed in ppm relative to Me4Si or the deuterated solvent residual

Synthesis and characterization of complexes

A series of new Fe(III)-complexes was synthesized by reacting the deprotonated tripodal aminophenolate ligand L2− with Fe(NO3)3.9H2O at room temperature, followed by the addition of bipy, phen or a phen derivative, as well as NaPF6 to afford the PF6 counter-ion, when appropriate. The resulting complexes 15 were obtained as violet solids in good yields and were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, UV–Vis, fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies. Analytical and spectroscopic

Conclusions

Five mixed-ligand [Fe(L)(NN)]+ complexes with L2− being a tripodal aminophenolate ligand and NN heterocyclic aromatic co-ligands were synthesized and characterized for their chemical and biological properties. The IC50 values were very low even upon 24 h incubation times, in the ∼3–18 μM range. Incubation media used in in vitro tests with mammalian cancer cells are complex mixtures and when metal complexes are added to such media their integrity may not be maintained [71]. On the other hand, it

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Source of funding

This project is funded by Koc University School of Medicine and Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)

Author contributions

C.P.M., Z.A., Y.Y. contributed equally to the work. C.A. and I.C. supervised the project, and C.A., I.C. and J.C.P. contributed to the design, organization and writing of the manuscript. The chemical characterization was performed by C.P.M., P.N., L.P.F., M.D.C., J.C.P., M.H.G., A.I.T. MTb experiments were carried out by D.L.C and F.R.P. The biological activity of compounds were assessed by Z.A., Y.Y., B.C., T.B.O., O.C. All authors read, edited and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (projects UID/QUI/00100/2013, UID/MULTI/04349/2013, UID/BIO/04565/2013, RECI/QEQ-QIN/0189/2012, RECI/QEQ-MED/0330/2012, IF/01179/2013), Programa Operacional Regional de Lisboa (LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-007317) and programme Investigador FCT (FSE, POPH). The Portuguese NMR and Mass Spectrometry IST–UL Centers are acknowledged for the access to the equipment. The authors thank Fernanda Marques for a preliminary cytotoxicity assessment

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SC halts work in 26 mines operating illegally in Odisha

The Supreme Court has cracked down on illegal mining operations in Odisha. In an interim order on Friday, Justice A K Patnaik suspended mining activities in 26 iron ore mine lease areas, saying these were operating without legal permits. The mines in question were found to be operating on the pretext of having obtained “second and subsequent renewals” without any such order being passed by the state government.The court said these leases will not be allowed to operate until express orders are passed by the Odisha governmen...

The Supreme Court has cracked down on illegal mining operations in Odisha. In an interim order on Friday, Justice A K Patnaik suspended mining activities in 26 iron ore mine lease areas, saying these were operating without legal permits. The mines in question were found to be operating on the pretext of having obtained “second and subsequent renewals” without any such order being passed by the state government.

The court said these leases will not be allowed to operate until express orders are passed by the Odisha government under provisions of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957. The court has also asked the state government to consider all renewal applications at the earliest and dispose them of within six months.

The state has been further directed to first consider the renewal applications that involve leases which were granted for captive mining of iron or manganese ore as raw material for industries, and thereafter consider the renewal applications in respect of the other leases. This followed a plea of the Union Ministry of Steel, which made a submission saying more than 50 per cent of the requirement of iron ore of the country is met from Odisha and that a large number of iron ore leases in the state are granted for captive mining and the ore from the mines is being utilised for manufacturing of the steel in the plants of the lease holders. Further, commercial miners are also providing raw material to iron and steel industries not only in the state but also in the whole country, the ministry said.

The order came in the wake of a petition, filed by non-profit Common Cause in February this year, which sought immediate judicial intervention to terminate all mining leases that are involved in illegal mining activities in Odisha. The petitioner highlighted the observations of the report of the Justice M B Shah commission that had pointed to large-scale illegal mining in the state in its report submitted to the Centre in October last year. The commission was set up by the central government in November, 2010, to look into illegal mining of iron ore and manganese in the country.

On April 21, the court had asked its Central Empowered Committee (CEC) to investigate the matter and identify the lessees who are operating the leases in violation of the law. The Odisha government and the union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) were asked to cooperate with the investigation. CEC submitted its report on April 25.

Legal status of mines

The bench noted that a total of 56 iron ore/manganese mining leases are presently operating in Odisha legally, among which 40 mining leases are operating under the deemed renewal provision in Rule 24A of the Mineral Concession Rules, 1960. Out of these 40 mining leases, 14 are operating as first renewal and 26 leases are operating as second and subsequent renewals and the renewal applications are at various stages of examination by the state authorities.

The court specifically noted that the 26 leases, that are being operated as second and subsequent deemed renewals under Rule 24A(6) of the Mineral Concession Rules, 1960 without any order passed by the state government are not permitted to do so. The bench clarified that the deemed extension clause in Rule 24A(6) of the Mineral Concession (MC) Rule, 1960 is not available for the second and subsequent renewals of a mining lease. Provisions for such renewals should be read along with the provisions of Section 8 (3) of the Mining and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957, which says that the approval for second or subsequent renewal of a mining lease will be given by the state government only if it is of the opinion that in the interest of mineral development it is necessary to do so, and only if reasons are recorded appropriately by the state government. Thus, in absence of any such opinion or reasoning, the operation of the 26 leases under second or subsequent renewal is not legal.

The bench also looked into the legal status of operation and future activities. Based on finding of the CEC report, the court noted that several lessees were operating without clearances under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, and without renewal by the government.

The bench noted that 102 mining leases do not have requisite clearances. However these leases were noted as “non-working” by the CEC as their operations had already been suspended. The bench directed that operation of the 102 leases shall remain suspended under the status quo, but the court is open to such lessees to move the concerned authorities seeking fresh environmental clearances from the MoEF and consent to operate by the state pollution control board (SPCB). The interim order of the court will be modified if these leases can secure the necessary clearances and consents. The same directions would apply to 29 more leases, which have been noted as rejected or lapsed by CEC.

State decision making questioned

Just as in case of the Goa mining, the delay in decision making of the state regarding renewal of mining leases have been brought into question in case of Odisha too. K B Nair, under-secretary with Union Ministry of Steel said that while there is a need to impose time limits by various authorities, closure of mining operations due to delay in decisions by state government on mining lease renewal applications may adversely affect the availability of critical raw materials like iron ore and subsequently affect the steel industry. The state, though, has now been asked to decide within six months, it is time that the capacity and functioning of the state authorities should be seriously reevaluated. This should be a priority for the new government to take into consideration if further illegalities are to be avoided given the inaction in part of the state.

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